process of pregnancy a mother for nine months certainly we need to know as a wife and husband and how the pregnancy is here we will uaraikan some of the pregnancy as follows:
Pregnancy is a condition where the fetus conceived in a woman’s body, which previously started with the process
fertilization and then will end with the birth process,
Fertilization (conception) is the beginning of pregnancy, where one egg is fertilized by one sperm.
Ovulation (release of eggs) is a part of the normal menstrual cycle, which occurs about 14 days before
menstruation. The egg is released to move to the end of the fallopian tubes (oviduct) of funnel-shaped, which is
the site of fertilization.
If no fertilization occurs, the egg will experience a decline (degeneration) and simultaneously removed through the vagina
with menstrual blood. In the event of fertilization, the egg cell that has been fertilized by sperm it would have
a series of fission and grow into an embryo (fetus would).
If the ovulation released more than 1 egg and then followed by fertilization, there will be pregnancy
doubles, usually twin 2. Cases like these are fraternal twins.
Identical twins occur when the initial cleavage, the fertilized egg cell divides into 2 separate cells or
in other words, identical twins come from one egg.
At the time of ovulation, the mucus layer in the cervix (neck of the womb) become more liquid, so that the sperm easily
in the womb. Sperm move from the vagina to the ends of the funnel-shaped fallopian tubes within 5 minutes.
Cells lining the fallopian tube facilitate fertilization and the formation of the zygote (fertilized egg cell).
Implantation & DEVELOPMENT PLACENTA
Implantation is the blastocyst attachment to the uterine wall, which is embedded in place.
Blastocysts are usually planted near the top of the uterus, on the front and rear walls.
Blastocyst wall has a thickness of 1 layer of cells, except in certain areas consist of 3-4 cells.
The cells on the inside of the wall thickness of blastocysts will develop into an embryo, while cells in the outer
embedded in the uterine wall and form the placenta (the placenta).
The placenta produces hormones to help maintain the pregnancy and allows rotation of oxygen, nutrients and
waste between mother and fetus.
Implantation begins on day 5-8 after fertilization and was completed on days 9-10.
Blastocyst wall is the outer layer of membrane that encloses the embryo (chorion). Layer in the (amniotic) begin
made on days 10-12 and form the amniotic sac.
Amniotic sac containing clear fluid (amniotic fluid) and will expand to wrap a growing embryo,
floating in it.
Small bumps (villi) from the placenta that are growing, extending into the uterine wall and form a branching
like arrangement of trees.
This arrangement led to the addition of wide area of contact between mother and placenta, so that nutrients from the mother
that reach the fetus and waste dumped more than a fetus to the mother.
Formation of a perfect placenta is usually completed at weeks 18-20, but the placenta will continue to grow during
pregnancy and at delivery weight reached 500 grams.
DEVELOPMENT OF EMBRYOS
Embryos first time can be recognized in the blastocysts about 10 days after fertilization. Then begin to occur
formation regions which will become the brain and spinal cord, while the heart and blood vessels began to be formed
on days 16-17.
The heart begins to pump fluid through blood vessels on day 20 and appeared the next day red blood cells
Furthermore, growing blood vessels throughout the embryo and placenta.
The organs are completely formed at 12 weeks gestation (10 weeks after permbuahan), except the brain and spinal
cord, which continued to maturation during pregnancy.
Organ formation abnormalities (malformations) most occur in the first trimester (12 weeks) of pregnancy, which
is the period of organ formation in which the embryo is very susceptible to the effects of drugs or viruses. Because it
a pregnant woman should not undergo immunization or consume drugs in the first trimester except
very important to protect his health. Provision of drugs that are known to cause malformations should
At first, embryo development occurs under the lining of the uterus on one side of the uterine cavity, but at week
12, the fetus (a term used after reaching 8 weeks of gestation) has experienced rapid growth
so that the coating on both sides of the uterus meet (because the fetus had fulfilled all the uterus).
DETERMINING AGE PREGNANCY
Conventionally, the pregnancy was calculated in weeks, starting from the first day of last menstrual period.
Ovulation usually occurs 2 weeks after menstruation and fertilization usually occurs soon after ovulation, because it
roughly the age of embryos is 2 weeks younger than the number of weeks that are traditionally used for
stated gestational age. In other words, a woman who is pregnant 4 weeks pregnant with embryos
2 weeks old.
If menstrual irregularities, then the difference would be more or less than 2 weeks.
For practical, if a woman is menstruating late 2 weeks, is said to have been pregnant 6 weeks.
Pregnancy lasts an average of 266 days (38 weeks) from the time of conception or 280 days (40 weeks) from day
To determine the approximate date of delivery can be performed the following calculation:
- Date of last menstrual period plus 7
- Last menstrual minus 3 months
- Last menstrual period plus 1 year.
Only 10% of pregnant women who delivered exactly on the estimated date of delivery, 50% gave birth within 1 week
and nearly 90% who gave birth within 2 weeks before or after the expected date of delivery. Labor
within 2 weeks before and after the estimated delivery is still considered normal.
Pregnancy is divided into 3-month period, referred to as:
- The first trimester (weeks 1-12)
- Second trimester (weeks 13-24)
- The third trimester (weeks 25-delivery).
KehamilanIsi process KandunganGambar Mother HamilIsi HamilBayi In Stomach When KandunganHamilBayi In PerutFoto
Mother HamilSaat HamilGambar Old Baby In PerutHamil
If a woman who usually experience regular menstrual delayed 1 week or more,
maybe she’s pregnant.
In early pregnancy, pregnant women may experience breast swelling and nausea, sometimes accompanied by vomiting.
Breast swelling occurs due to increased levels of female hormones (especially estrogen, progesterone as well.)
Nausea and vomiting caused by estrogen and HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin). Both of these hormones help maintain
pregnancy and started to produced by the placenta at around 10 days after fertilization.
In early pregnancy, many women who feel very tired and some women experience abdominal bloating.
If a woman is pregnant, uterus serviksnya softer and softer as well and swell.
Usually the vagina and cervix into bluish to purple, because the veins filled with blood.
This change can be seen on pelvic examination.
Usually to determine pregnancy pregnancy tests on blood and urine.
A pregnancy test ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can instantly and easily detect the levels of HCG
Low in the urine.
During the first 60 days of normal pregnancy with 1 fetus, multiplied HCG levels every 2 days.
During pregnancy, the uterus continues to grow. At 12 weeks gestation, the uterus enlarges out panggu, namely toward the
and usually can be felt if the doctors examine the lower abdomen.
The uterus continues to grow to a height of navel at 20 weeks and get to the bottom of the ribs at the age of
36 weeks gestation.
Another way to detect pregnancy:
1. Listening to fetal heart rate.
Fetal heartbeat can be heard via a special stethoscope or Doppler ultrasound.
With the help of special steteoskop, fetal heartbeat could be heard at 18-20 weeks of gestation, whereas if
using Doppler ultrasound, fetal heartbeat could be heard at 12-14 weeks of gestation.
2. Feeling fetal movements.
Mother can feel fetal movements at 16-20 weeks gestation.
Women who had ever been pregnant will meraskan fetal movement this early.
3. Checking the uterus by ultrasound.
The enlarged uterus can be seen with ultrasound at 6 weeks of pregnancy, as well as with heart rate
PHYSICAL CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY
# Pregnancy causes many changes in the body, most of these changes will disappear after delivery.
Heart and blood vessels.
During pregnancy, the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute (cardiac output, cardiac output) increases
up to 30-50%. This increase started at 6 weeks of pregnancy and reached a peak in pregnancy 16-28
Because cardiac output increases, the heart rate at rest also meningka (in normal circumstances 70
times / minute to be 80-90 times / minute).
After reaching 30 weeks gestation, cardiac output decreased slightly due to the enlarged uterus pressing venous
bring darh from leg to the heart.
During labor, cardiac output increased by 30%,
After delivery cardiac output decreased to 15-25% above the limit of pregnancy, then slowly return to the boundary
Increased cardiac output during pregnancy is likely due to the change in blood flow to the uterus.
Because the fetus continues to grow, then more blood is sent to the mother’s womb.
At the end of pregnancy, the uterus is receiving one fifth of all maternal blood.
When doing activities / sports, then cardiac output, heart rate and respiratory rate in pregnant women is higher
compared with women who are not pregnant.
Chest X-rays and an EKG showed some changes in the heart, and sometimes sounded certain heart murmurs
and heart rhythm irregularity.
All these changes are normal during pregnancy, but some heart rhythm abnormalities may be
require special treatment.
During the second trimester usually decreases blood pressure but will return to normal in the third trimester.
During pregnancy, blood volume in circulation increased by 50%, but the number of red blood cells that transports
oxygen only increased by 25-30%.
For reasons unclear, the number of white blood cells (which serve to protect the body against infection) during pregnancy,
during delivery and a few days after birth, rather increased.
During pregnancy, the kidneys work harder. The kidneys filter blood volume increases (up to 30-50% or more),
the peak occurred at 16-24 weeks of pregnancy until shortly before delivery (at the moment blood flow to the kidneys
reduced due to the enlarged uterus presses).
Under normal circumstances, the kidney activity increased when lying down and down when standing. The situation is further
during pregnancy, so pregnant women often feel the need to urinate when they try to lie down / sleep.
At the end of pregnancy, increased activity of the larger kidney occurs in pregnant women who sleep on. SIDE SLEEPER
reduce pressure from the uterus on the veins that carry blood from the legs resulting in improved blood flow
will further increase the activity of kidney and cardiac output.
The space required by the enlarged uterus and increased the formation of the hormone progesterone causes
other lung function than normal.
Pregnant women breathe faster and deeper as it requires more oxygen for himself and for the fetus.
Pregnant woman’s chest circumference slightly enlarged.
Lining the respiratory tract receives more blood and become somewhat clogged by a buildup of blood (congestion).
Sometimes the nose and throat becomes blocked partially due to this congestion. Pressure and female voice quality
Pregnant somewhat changed.
# Digestive System
Growing uterus will put pressure on the rectum and lower intestine, causing constipation (constipation).
Constipation has become harder because the muscles in the bowel movement is slowed by high levels of progesterone.
Pregnant women often experience heartburn (a burning sensation in the chest) and saltpeter, which may occur due to food
longer be in the stomach and because of sphincter relaxation in the bottom of the esophagus that allows content
the stomach to flow back into the esophagus.
Gastrikum ulcer is rare in pregnant women and if previously suffered from ulcer gastrikum will usually
improved because of stomach acid produced less.
Mask of pregnancy (melasma) is a brownish pigment spots that appear on the forehead and cheek skin.
Increased pigmentation also occurs around the nipple. Whereas in the abdomen below the middle of the normally visible
Spider angioma (small blood vessels that provide a picture like a spider) can appear on the skin, usually on top
waist. While the widening of small blood vessels that often appear in thin-walled lower leg.
Pregnancy affects nearly every hormone in the body.
The placenta produces a hormone to help the body in maintaining pregnancy. The main hormone
HCG is produced by the placenta, which acts to prevent ovulation and stimulate the formation of estrogen and
progesterone by the ovaries to maintain pregnancy.
The placenta also produces hormones yan gmenyebabkan thyroid gland becomes more active. The thyroid gland is more
cause rapid heartbeat, heart pounding (palpitations), excessive sweating and mood swings;
but it also can occur thyroid gland enlargement. But hyperthyroidism (thyroid gland overaktivitas) only occurs in
less than 1% of pregnancies.
The placenta also produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone that causes darker skin and hormone
cause increased levels of adrenal hormones in the blood. Increased hormone levels in the possibility of causing
pingk colored stretch marks on the skin of the abdomen.
During pregnancy required more insulin produced by the pancreas. Therefore, people with diabetes who are
pregnant women may experience symptoms of diabetes worse.
TREATMENT DURING PREGNANCY
Examination at the age of pregnancy at 6 and 8 weeks is very important to estimate the gestational age and
approximate date of delivery.
Physical examination was first performed usually include weight, height and blood pressure. Then
examination of the neck, thyroid gland, breast, stomach, arms and legs.
With the help of a stethoscope, by checking on the heart and lungs, while checking the rear
eye done with the help oftalmoskop.
Also performed pelvic and rectal examination to determine the size of the uterus and kelaian danposisi in the pelvis.
Complete blood examination, blood tests for syphilis, hepatitis, gonorrhea, chlamydia infection and disease
Other sexually transmitted.
Blood tests were also performed to determine blood type and Rh antibodies.
Chest X-rays done if only known pregnant woman is suffering from lung disease or heart.
If not urgent, X-ray examination should be avoided, especially in the first 12 weeks because the fetus is
sensitive to radiation effects. If urgent, the fetus must be protected by way of covering the lower abdomen with the material
containing lead so that the womb is protected.
Screening for diabetes should be done immediately after a gestation of 12 weeks at:
- Women who never gave birth to a very large baby
- Women who have experienced miscarriage cause is not clear
- Women who have families who suffer from diabetes.
At week 28, all pregnant women should undergo screening for diabetes.
At week 16-18, examined levels of alpha-fetoprotein (a protein produced by the fetus) in the blood
If levels are high, possibly conceived fetus suffered from spina bifida or there are more than 1 fetus. If the level
low, there is the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.
With ultrasound, pregnancy can be known starting from 4-5 weeks after ovulation. Ultrasound is also used to:
- Following the development of pregnancy
- Determine the estimated date of delivery
- Determine the rate of fetal growth
- Record fetal heart rate or respiratory
- Knowing the multiple pregnancy
- Knowing the number of abnormalities (eg placenta previa)
- Knowing the position of fetal abnormality
- Guiding the needle in the amniotic fluid sampling for genetic testing or lung maturity
In young pregnancy, before undergoing an ultrasound examination, women should drink plenty of water because the bladder
full will push the uterus out of the pelvic cavity so that it can obtain a clearer picture of the fetus.
The next inspection is done every 4 weeks (1 time / month) until reaching 32 weeks gestational age. Then
every 2 weeks until reaching 36 weeks gestation and after 36 weeks, the examination performed 1 time per week.
At each pemeriskaan, weight measurement and blood pressure, and the size and shape of the uterus to
know the growth and development of the fetus.
The urine is examined to determine the presence of sugar and protein. The presence of sugar shows diabetes and protein
pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure, protein in the urine and fluid retention during pregnancy).
If the mother has Rh-negative blood, the Rh antibody examination.
If blood is Rh-negative mother and father’s blood is Rh-positive, then the fetus may have Rh-positive. If the fetal blood
who has Rh-positive blood into the circulation of mothers who have Rh-negative, then the mother’s body will make antibodies
Rh one can enter the bloodstream and damage the fetal red blood cells, causing jaundice (yellow), which can
cause brain damage or fetal death.
Weight gain during pregnancy, in women who have an average size typically ranges from 12.5 to 15 kg
(About 1-1.5 kg / month).
Weight gain in excess of 15 to 17.5 kg causes accumulation of fat in the fetus and mother.
Weight loss is not increased is a bad (especially if the total weight increase of less than 5 kg) and
this could indicate a slow fetal growth.
Sometimes weight gain caused by fluid retention due to poor blood flow in the leg when a woman
This can be overcome by lying on your left side for 30-45 minutes 2-3 times / day.
During pregnancy, caloric needs should be added about 250 calories for available nutrients sufficient for growth
Pregnant women should consume a nutritionally balanced diet, including fruits and vegetables. Avoid
food is too salty or foods that contain preservatives.
A pregnant woman should not drink drugs carelessly.
During pregnancy, the body needs iron in order to meet the needs of mother and fetus. Usually given
additional iron. Provision of iron can cause a mild stomach upset and constipation.
Nausea and vomiting can be reduced by changing eating patterns, namely:
- Drinking and eating in small portions but frequently
- Eat before hunger
- Food software.
To cope with morning sickness (morning sickness) should be eating 1-2 pieces of biscuit before getting out of place
If nausea and vomiting are very heavy and settled resulting in dehydration, weight loss or disruption
other, then usually the pregnant woman must undergo treatment at the hospital for the time and get moreover
Edema (swelling) is common, especially in the limbs. Similarly with the veins of the legs and in
area around the vaginal opening.
To reduce swelling of the legs, elastic buffer can be used or lie down with more leg position
Hemorrhoids can be treated with medication taking stool softeners or soaking in warm water.
At the time of pregnancy is usually the amount of discharge from the vagina increases, this is normal. Trichomoniasis and
candidiasis is a common vaginal infection during pregnancy and easily treated.
Bacterial vaginosis (a bacterial infection of the vagina) can cause premature birth and should be treated thoroughly.
Pregnant women can still perform their daily activities and exercise.
Sexual intercourse during pregnancy is still permissible, except in case of bleeding, pain or leakage of amniotic fluid.
Every pregnant woman should know the signs of early labor.
The main sign is a contraction of the lower abdomen with a certain time interval and back pain.
Towards the end of pregnancy (after 36 weeks), the doctor will perform a pelvic examination to try
estimated time of delivery.
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